References, sources

  A. Cutthroat conservation​

  1. "Conservation Agreement, Colorado River Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus) in the States of Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah," Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, 2006.

  2. "Conservation Strategy for Colorado River Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus) in the States of Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah," Prepared by CRCT Coordination Team, Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, 2006.

  3. "Cutthroat Trout Management: A Position Paper, Genetic Considerations Associated with Cutthroat Trout Management," Developed by: Colorado Division of Wildlife; Idaho Department of Fish and Game; Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks; Nevada Division of Wildlife; New Mexico Game and Fish; Utah Division of Wildlife Resources; Wyoming Game and Fish Department, 2000.

  4. Mullane, S, "Newly Discovered Trout to be Restored in Headwaters of Wolf Creek," Durango Herald, August 26, 2021.

  5. White, J., “Status of Colorado Cutthroat Trout in the Upper Dolores River Basin,” Presented at Dolores River Trout Unlimited Meeting, January 14, 2019.

  B. Identification, DNA

  1. Behnke, R. J., "Native trout of western North America," American Fisheries Society, Monograph 6, 1992.

  2. Bestgen, K. R., K. B. Rogers, R. Granger, "Distinct Phenotypes of Native Cutthroat Trout Emerge under a Molecular Model of Lineage Distributions," Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, vol. 148, pp. 442–463, DOI: 10.1002/tafs.10145, 2019.

  3. Carim, K. J., L. A. Eby, C. A. Barfoot, and M. C. Boyer, "Consistent Loss of Genetic Diversity in Isolated Cutthroat Populations Independent of Habitat Size and Quality, Conservation Genetics, v. 17, pp. 1363-1376, DOI 10.1007/s10592-016-0867-9, 2016.

  4. “Colorado Parks and Wildlife Announces Discovery of Unique Cutthroat Trout in Southwest Colorado,” CPW News Release, Department of Natural Resources, Colorado Parks and Wildlife, 4 Sep 2018;




  8. Metcalf, J. L., S. Love Stowell, C. M. Kennedy,  K. B. Rogers, D. McDonald, J. Epp, K. Keepers, A. Cooper, J. J. Austin, and A. P. Martin, Historical Stocking Data and 19th Century DNA Reveal Human-Induced Changes to Native Diversity and Distribution of Cutthroat Trout," Molecular Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/mec.12028, 2012.

  9. Rogers, K. B., K. R. Bestgen, and J. Epp, "Using Genetic Diversity to Inform Conservation Efforts for Native Cutthroat Trout of the Southern Rocky Mountains," Wild Trout Symposium XI, Looking Back and Moving Forward, 281--Session 5: Status and Management of Native Salmonids, 2014.

  C. Measures, effects​

  1. Davee, R., H. Gosnell, and S. Charnley, 2019, "Using Beaver Dam Analogues for Fish and Wildlife Recovery on Public and Private Rangelands in Eastern Oregon," USDA, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Research Paper PWN-RP-612.

  2. Fausch, K. D., B. E. Rieman, M. K. Young, and J. B. Dunham, "Strategies for Conserving Native Salmonid Populations at Risk From Nonnative Fish Invasions: Tradeoffs in Using Barriers to Upstream Movement," U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-174, 2006.

  3. Goldfarb, B., 2018, “Beaver Dams without Beavers? Artificial are a Popular but Controversial Restoration Tool,” Science, AAAS,,

  4. Harig, A. L. and K. D. Fausch, "Minimum Habitat Requirements for Establishing Translocated Cutthroat Trout Populations," Ecological Applications, v. 12, n. 2, pp. 535-551, 2002.

  5. Harvey, B. C.,  J. L. White, and R. J. Nakamoto, "The Effect of Deposited Fine Sediment on Summer Survival and Growth of Rainbow Trout in Riffles of a Small Stream," North American Journal of Fisheries Management, v. 29, pp. 434–440, 2009.

  6. Hauer C., P. Leitner, G. Unfe, U. Pulg, H. Habersack, W. Graf, "The Role of Sediment and Sediment Dynamics in the Aquatic Environment," In: Schmutz S., Sendzimir J. (eds) Riverine Ecosystem Management. Aquatic Ecology Series, v. 8. Springer, Cham., 2018.


  8. Jones, P. E., Tummers, J. S., Galib, S. M., Woodford, D. J., Hume, J. B., Silva, L. G. M., Braga, R. R., Garcia de Leaniz, C., Vitule, J. R. S., Herder, J. E., and Lucas, M. C., 2021, "The Use of Barriers to Limit the Spread of Aquatic Invasive Animal Species: A Global Review," Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 9:611631, DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2021.611631.

  9. Nehring, R. B., Alves, J., Nehring, J. B., and Felt, B., 2018, "Elimination of Myxobolus cerebralis in Placer Creek, a Native Cutthroat Trout Stream in Colorado,"  Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 30, 264–279. DOI: 10.1002/aah.10039.

  10. Peterson, C., 2020, "The Science of Recovery, How TU Researchers are Leveraging Partnerships, DNA and NASA to Help Save an Ancient Fish," Trout, Trout Unlimited,

  11. Peterson, C., 2018, "Once Considered the Scourge of Agriculture in the West, Ranchers are Now Building Beaver Dams, and Welcoming the Creatures Home," Casper Star Tribune,

  12. Pollock, M. M., T. J. Beechie, J. M. Wheaton, C. E. Jordan, N. Bouwes, N. Weber, and C. Volk, 2014, "Using Beaver Dams to Restore Incised Stream Systems," Bioscience, Advance Access Publication,

  13. Vanderhoof, J., "Beaver Management Technical Paper #3, Beaver Life History and Ecology, Best Science Review," King County Water and Land Resources Division, Department of Natural Resources and Parks, Science and Technical Support Section, Seattle, WA, 2020.

  14. Young, M. K., R. N. Schmal, T. W. Kohley, and V. G. Leonard, “Conservation Status of Colorado River Cutthroat Trout,” U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ft. Collins, CO, General Technical Report RM-GTR-249, 1996.

  15. Zeedyk, B. and V. Clothier, 2009, “Let the Water to the Work; Induced Meandering, an Evolving Method for Restoring Incised Channels,” Chelsea Green Publishing, White River Junction, VT.

 D. Trout movement​

  1. Baird, O. E. and C. C. Krueger, “Behavioral Thermoregulation of Brook and Rainbow Trout: Comparison of Summer Habitat Use in an Adirondack River, New York,” Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, vol. 132, pp 1194-1206, 2003.

  2. Hansbarger, J. L., J. T. Petty and P. M. Mazik, “Brook Trout Movement within a High-Elevation Watershed: Consequences for Watershed Restoration,” Proceedings from the Conference on the Ecology and Management of High-Elevation Forests in the Central and Southern Appalachian Mountains, GTR-NRS-P-64, 2009.

  3. Hodge, B. W., K.D. Battige and K. B. Rogers, “Seasonal and Temperature-Related Movement of Colorado River Cutthroat Trout in a Low-Elevation, Rocky Mountain Stream,” Ecology and Evolution, vol. 7, pp 2346-2356, 2017.

  4. Kaeding, L., “Summer Use of Coolwater Tributaries of a Geothermally Heated Stream by Rainbow and Brown Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta,” Journal of American Midland Naturalist, vol. 135, p. 283, DO:10.2307/2426711, 1996.

  5. Petty, J. T., J. L. Hansbarger, B. M. Huntsman, “Brook Trout Movement in Response to Temperature, Flow, and Thermal Refugia within a Complex Appalachian Riverscape,” Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, vol. 141, pp 1060-1073, 2012.

  E. Water quality and temperature​

  1. Bear, E. B.,T. E. McMahon and A. V. Zall, 2007, “Comparative Thermal Requirements of Westslope Cutthroat and Rainbow Trout: Implications for Species Interactions and Development of Thermal Protection Standards,” Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, no. 136, pp. 1113-1121.

  2. Brungs, W. A., and B. R. Jones, “Temperature Criteria for Freshwater Fish: Protocol and Procedures,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN, 1977.Code of Colorado Regulations, Water Quality Control Commission, 5 CCR 1002-31, Regulation No. 31, "The Basic Standards and Methodologies for Surface Water" (Rule 31).

  3. "Climate Change and the Upper Dolores Watershed: A Coldwater-Fisheries Adaptive Management Framework," 2017, Report prepared for Dolores River Anglers Chapter of Trout Unlimited.

  4. Coutant, C. C., “Thermal Preference: When Does an Asset Become a Liability?” Environmental Biology of Fishes, vol. 18, pp. 161-172, 1987.

  5. Code of Colorado Regulations, Water Quality Control Commission, 5 CCR 1002-31, Regulation No. 31, "The Basic Standards and Methodologies for Surface Water" (Rule 31).

  6. Code of Colorado Regulations, Water Quality Control Commission, 5 CCR 1002-34, Regulation No. 34, "Classifications and Numeric Standards for San Juan River and Dolores River Basins" (Rule 34).

  7. Cranshaw, L. I., “Physiological and Behavioral Reactions of Fishes to Temperature Change, Journal of the Fishery Research Board of Canada, vol. 34, pp. 730-734, 1977.

  8. Downs, C. C., R. G. White and B. B. Shepard, “Age at Sexual Maturity, Sex Ratio, Fecundity, and Longevity of Isolated Headwater Populations of Westslope Cutthroat Trout,” North American Journal of Fisheries Management, vol. 17, pp, 85-92, 1997.

  9. Fausch, K. D., S. Nakano and K. Ishigaki, “Distribution of Two Congeneric Chars in Stream of Hokkaido Island, Japan: Considering Multiple Factors across Scales,” Oecologia, Vol 100, p 1-12, 1994.

  10. Fornshell, G. and C. Myrick, “Early Rearing of Cutthroat Trout Technical Report, “Western Regional Aquaculture Center, Seattle, 2009.

  11. Hillman, T. W., M. D. Miller and B. A. Nishitani, “Evaluation of Seasonal-Cold-Water Temperature Criteria,” Idaho Division of Environmental Quality, Boise, 1999.

  12. Jobling, M., Fish Bioenergetics, New York, NY: Chapman and Hall, 1994.

  13. Quality Criteria for Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1986

  14. Roberts, J. J., K. D. Fausch, D. P. Peterson and M. B. Hooten, “Fragmentation and Thermal Risks from Climate Change Interact to Affect Persistence of Native Trout in the Colorado River Basin,” Global Change Biology, pp. 1-16, 2013.

  15. Rose, R. R., 2020, "Sustainability of Trout Populations and Role of Tributaries, Examining Water-Temperature Habitat Conditions in the Dolores River Basin," Report prepared for Colorado Water Conservation Board, Department of Natural Resources.

  16. "Temperature Criteria Methodology," Policy Statement 06-1, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, approved 8/8/2011, expires 1/31/2023.

  17. Todd, A. S., M. A. Coleman, A. M. Konowal, M. K. May, S. Johnson, N. K. M. Vieira, and J. F. Saunders, "Development of New Water Temperature Criteria to Protect Colorado's Fisheries," Fisheries, vol. 33, no. 9, pp 433-443, 2008.

  18. Tyler, P. and P. Calow, Fish Energetics: New Perspectives, London: Croom Helm, 1985.

  19. Welch, D. W., Y. Ishida and K. Nagasawa, “Thermal Limits and Ocean Migrations of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka): Long-Term Consequences of Global Warming,” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol. 55, pp. 937-948, 1998.

  20. Wenger, S. J., D. J. Isaak, C. H. Luce, H. M. Neville, K. D. Fausch, J. B. Dunham, D. C. Dauwalter, M. K. Young, M. M. Elsner, B. E. Rieman, A. F. Hamlet and J. E. Williams, “Flow Regime, Temperature, and Biotic Interactions Drive Differential Declines of Trout Species under Climate Change,” PNAS, vol 108, no. 34, pp. 14175-14180, 2011.

  21. Williams, J. E., M. P. Dombeck, and C. A. Wood, “My Healthy Stream, A Handbook for Streamside Owners,” Trout Unlimited, Arlington, VA, 2012.

  22. Young, M. K., “Colorado River Cutthroat Trout: a Technical Conservation Assessment,” U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Station, Fort Collins, 2008.

  F. Debris, sediment​

  1. Benda, L. and T. Dunne, "Stochastic Forcing of Sediment Supply to Channel Networks from Land Sliding and Debris Flow," Water Resources Research, vol. 33, pp. 2849-283, 1997.

  2. Benda, L. D., D. Miller, P. Bigelow, and K. Andras, "Effects of Post-Wildfire Erosion on Channel Environments, Boise River, Idaho," Forest Ecology and Management," Vol 178, pp. 105-119, 2003.

  3. Bozek, M. A., and M. K. Young, "Fish Mortality Resulting from Delayed Effects of Fire in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem," Great Basin Naturalist, vol. 54, pp. 91-95, 1994.

  4. Cannon, S. H., J. E. Gartner, M. G. Rupert, J. A. Michael, A. H. Rea, and C. Parrett, "Predicting the Probability and Volume of Post-Wildfire Debris Flows in the Intermountain West United States," Geologic Society of America Bulletin, vol. 122, pp. 127-144, 2010.

  5. Carlisle, D. M., M. R. Meador, S. R. Moulton, and P. M. Ruhl, "Estimation and Application of Indicator Values for Common Macroinvertebrate Genera and Families of the United States," Ecological Indicators, vol 7, no. 2007, pp. 22-223, 2007.

  6. Colorado Water Control Division, "Guidance for Implementation of Colorado's Narrative Sediment Standard, Section 31.11(1)(a)(i), 2014.

  7. Culp, J. M., F. J. Wrona, and R. W. Davies, "Response of Stream Benthos and Drift to Fine Sediment Deposition Versus Transport, Canadian Journal of Geology, vol. 64, pp. 1345-1351, 1986.

  8. Gartner, J. E., S. H. Cannon, P. M. Santi, and V. G. Dewolfe, "Empirical Models to Predict the Volumes of Debris Flows Generated by Recently Burned Basins in the Western US," Geomorphology, vol. 96, pp. 339-354, 2008.

  9. Gresswell, R. E.,  "Fire and Aquatic Ecosystems in Forested Biomes of North America," Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, vol. 128, pp. 193-221, 1999.

  10. Howell, P. J., "Effects of Wildfire and Subsequent Hydrologic Events on Fish Distribution and Abundance in Tributaries of North Fork John Day River," North American Journal of Fisheries Management, vol. 26, pp. 983-994, 2006.

  11. Hungr, O. S., S. McDougall, and M. Bovis, "Entrainment of Material by Debris Flows," in Debris Flow Hazards and Related Phenomena, Berlin, Germany, Springer Verlag Praxis, 2005, pp. 135-158 in M. Jacob and O. Hungr (editors).

  12. Hyde, K., "The Use of Wildfire Burn Severity Mapping to Indicate Potential Locations for Gully Rejuvenation, Bitterroot Valley, Montana," University of Montana, Missoula, MT, 2003.

  13. Kondolf, G. M., "Assessing Salmonid Spawning Gravel Quality," Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, vol. 129, pp. 262-281, 2000.

  14. May, C. L. and R. E. Gresswell, "Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Debris-Flow Deposition in the Oregon Coast Range, USA, Geomorphology, vol. 57, pp. 135-149, 2004.

  15. McGee, J. P., T. E. McMahon, and R. F. Thurlow, "Spatial Variation in Spawning Habitat of Cutthroat Trout in a Sediment-Rich Stream Basin," Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, vol. 125, pp. 768-779, 1996.

  16. Moore, K. M., K. K. Jones, and J. M. Dambacher, "Methods for Stream Habitat Surveys: Aquatic Inventories Project," Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Corvallis, Oregon, 2007.

  17. Parrett, C., S. H. Cannon, and K. L. Pierce, "Wildfire Related Floods and Debris Flows in Montana in 2000 and 2001," U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA 2003.

  18. Reeves, G. E., L. E. Benda, K. M. Burnett, P A. Bisson, and J. R. Sedwell, "A Disturbance-Based Ecosystem Approach to Maintaining and Restoring Freshwater Habitats of Evolutionary Significant Units of Anadromous Salmonids in the Pacific Northwest," in Evolution and the Aquatic Ecosystem: Defining Unique Units in Population Conservation, Bethesda, MD, 1995.

  19. Sedwell, E. R.,  R. E. Gresswell, and T. E. McMahon, "Predicting Spatial Distribution of Postfire Debris Flows," Freshwater Science, vol 34, no. 4, pp. 1558-1570, 2015.

  20. Sedwell, J. R., G. H. Reeves, F. R. Hauer, J. A. Stanford, and C. P. Hawkins, "Role of Refugia in Recovery from Disturbances: Modern Fragmented and Disconnected River Systems," Environmental Management, vol. 14, pp. 711-724, 1990.

  21. Sestrich, C. M., T. E. McMahon, and M. K. Young, "Influence of Fire on Native and Nonnative Salmonid Populations and Habitat in a Western Montana Basin," Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, vol. 140, pp. 136-146, 2011.

  22. Wondzell, S. M., and J. G. King, "Postfire Erosional Processes in the Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountain Regions, Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 178, pp. 75-87, 2003.

  23. Waters, T. F., "Sediment in Streams--Sources, Biological Effects and Control," American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD, 1995.

  24. Williams, C. D. , "Summary of Scientific Findings of Road and Aquatic Ecosystems: Primary Research and Analysis, 1999, Available at

  25. Wohl, E. E., "Virtual Rivers: Lessons from the Mountain Rivers of the Colorado Front Range, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.

  26. Wood, P. J. and P. D. Armitage, "Biological Effects of Fine Sediment in the Lotic Environment," Environmental Management, vol. 21, pp. 203-217, 1997.

  27. Young, M. K., "Colorado River Cutthroat Trout: a Technical Conservation Assessment," USDA Forest Service, Rock Mountain Station, Fort Collins, 2008.

  G. Additional​

  1. Bosworth, D, "We Need a New National Debate," speech to the Izaak Walton League, 81st Annual Convention, 8/17/2003.

  2. "Dolores Ranger District Range Allotments/Pastures," Dolores Ranger District Office, San Juan National Forest, U.S. Forest Service.

  3. "Final San Juan National Forest and Proposed Tres Rios Field Office Land and Resource Management Plan," U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, Region 2, San Juan National Forest, September 2013.

  4. Frost, Jim, Introduction to Statistics, an Intuitive Guide for Analyzing Data and Unlocking Discoveries, 2019,


  6. Lewis, J. G., The Forest Service and the Greatest Good, a Centennial History, Forest History Society, 2005.

  7. Sokal, R. R. and F. J. Rohlf, Biometry, San Francisco, W. H. Freeman and Company, 1969.

  8. Trout Unlimited, "In the Matter of the Rulemaking Hearing for Consideration of the Proposed Rules to Implement House Bill 20-1157, Application of Party Status of Trout Unlimited," Colorado Water Program Director, November 12, 2020.

    Reports | References | Index 

    Reports | References | Index